The grand challenge in information technology is increasing the speed of information processing while improving the energy efficiency at the same time. Addressing this challenge requires the exploration of physical processes and material properties to ultimate time scales down to the femtosecond regime. This regime becomes accessible to experiment by dedicated pulsed light sources, which are constructed and implemented JuSPARC. They will not only allow us to explore the “speed limits” of charge and spin-based information processing, but will also open up a whole new field in modern condensed matter physics dealing with the creation and control of nonequilibrium states with novel unexpected properties. JuSPARC will provide a suite of spectroscopy, microscopy, and scattering experiments to investigate these nonequilibrium states and disentangle the underlying microscopic mechanisms governing them.